Growing Broccoli From Sowing to Harvest

, written by Benedict Vanheems gb flag

Summer broccoli (calabrese)

Broccoli has so much going for it. How about the joyous prospect of deliciously tender spears to pick in spring, when there’s little else about? Or the fact it’s contains more vitamins, iron and even protein that most other vegetables? Or maybe just the fact it’s so darn delicious when you grow your own! This is an incredibly rewarding plant if you know how to grow it well. Watch our video or read on to find out everything you need to know to grow a bumper crop of broccoli.

Types of Broccoli

First, a quick overview of the two main types of broccoli. The type shown at the top of the page is commonly just called broccoli, but depending on where you live you may also know it as calabrese. It produces these big, fat, green heads, which are usually picked (at least in my temperate climate) from early summer to early autumn. It isn’t particularly hardy and is best sown in spring.

Then there’s sprouting broccoli. It’s far hardier and typically sown in spring or early summer to give a crop in the cooler months, usually from late winter and on through spring. The spears themselves are more slender and are usually white, cream or – my favourite – purple.

Both types of broccoli are fantastic crops and, if you grow both, should give you a good spread of tasty spears throughout most of the year.

Sprouting broccoli is a valuable crop that will provide fresh harvests during the 'hungry gap' early in the year

Sowing Broccoli

Mid-spring, which is the perfect time to sow a crop of summer broccoli (calabrese). Either sow into pots of all-purpose potting mix, then transplant after germination into their own plug trays, or sow into plug trays – two or three seeds per plug – to then thin out to leave just one seedling per plug. If you have the space and the seed is cheap, then sow into plug trays as it’s no big deal to discard the thinned seedlings.

I prefer to sow into pots. This way, when I start the earliest sowings off (indoors, to get a more even germination), they take up a lot less room. And, to be honest, I rather like the whole transplanting process. It offers such a sense of achievement and it’s proper mindfulness – who doesn’t get lost in the moment on tasks like this?! Plus, you get to choose the best-looking seedlings for growing on.

Broccoli can be sown from as early as late winter – germinated on a warm windowsill indoors – until early summer. Sowing in stages – say once a month – should give a longer harvest and acts as an insurance policy if something eats your first seedlings. Scatter the seeds very thinly over the surface of the potting mix, then cover them with a little bit more potting mix.

Broccoli seedlings germinate fast, and can be separated into their own pots or plugs as soon as they're big enough to handle

I find that all brassicas germinate remarkably quickly and reliably, so expect them to be up within just three or four days. Once they’ve germinated, carefully transplant them into individual plugs or pots, selecting the biggest, strongest seedlings and composting the rest (or you could rinse them off to eat as a tasty microgreen).

I like to transplant the seedlings very soon after they’ve germinated. They are smaller and easier to handle this size, and they don’t seem to notice being transplanted – they’re so resilient.

Sprouting broccoli should be sown in late spring or early summer. That way, they will be ready to go into their final positions when the first crops of the season – salads, peas, garlic, broad beans, and so on – are coming out, so this is a great way to make the most of the space you have by using the broccoli as a follow-on (or succession) crop.

Transplanting Broccoli

The perfect size for both broccoli and sprouting broccoli is when plants reach about 6in (15cm) tall, usually when they have about two sets of adult leaves. This is typically four to six weeks after sowing, depending on the time of year.

Prepare your soil by adding about an inch (2cm) of compost or manure (or a combination of the two) on top. Grow broccoli in a sunny spot, unless you’re growing in a hot climate, where you may want to offer this cool-season crop a bit of shading. In very hot climates you may need to sow towards the end of summer or in autumn to make the most of those cooler winter months.

Plant broccoli seedlings into rich soil that will support vigorous growth

Plant your broccoli about 18in (45cm) apart in both directions. You can go a little closer, but you’ll get smaller spears. It’s really up to you how you play it: more plants with smaller spears, or fewer plants with bigger spears.

You can use a dibber to make fairly deep holes then pop your young plants in up to their lowest leaves. You don’t need a special tool to use as a dibber – for instance I often just use the handle on my trowel. Pop the plant in then firm it into position well. Give them a good soaking to settle the soil. And that’s it!

Broccoli Care

Like other brassicas, broccoli can often be targeted by pests. Early crops of broccoli may escape the attention of caterpillars, as long as they’re harvested by midsummer. But from early summer you’ll need to put up the defenses against caterpillars, as well other insect pests like cabbage aphids and flea beetles.

Insect mesh is light and allows for a good airflow. Nothing can get through it! Support it on some sort of framework - canes with upturned plastic bottles on the top of them is nice and simple, but very effective. This will keep the mesh suspended above the plants so butterflies can’t lay their eggs on the leaves through it, and the bottles protect the mesh from tearing. Make sure the edges are properly secured and flat to the ground (or even buried in the soil) so insects can’t get in from beneath.

Broccoli usually needs protection from pests such as caterpillars

You can remove covers later in summer, but then for your sprouting broccoli you’ll need to erect netting to keep the birds (especially pigeons) off your plants. Keep the netting or mesh in place until there’s more natural food for the pigeons to eat, by about midspring. Or just keep the mesh in place throughout the life of the crop, which should also offer plants a bit of protection from the winter weather.

As far as ground care is concerned, keep the soil your broccoli is growing in nice and moist. This will help it grow strongly, making it better able to repel any pests. If you’re in a hot climate, you could also water the leaves to cool plants down on a hot day.

Keep plants weeded, and consider topping up mulches around sprouting broccoli plants towards the end of summer to help. This will give plants more resources to draw on as it gradually gets incorporated into the soil, as well as trapping moisture where it’s needed down at the roots.

Finally, remove any yellowing or damaged leaves. This not only keeps plants looking neater, it also avoids having them rotting, which will only serve to attract slugs.

Leave plenty of stem when harvesting and you'll be treated to second, smaller crop

How to Harvest Broccoli

Harvesting is the best bit – your reward for all that patience and dedication! That said, broccoli may be ready to harvest just two months on from planting.

Harvest summer broccoli while the florets that make up the head are still compact and tight. If they are separating or even starting to open out a bit, you’ve left it a little too late, though they will still be perfectly edible of course! You want to harvest with a bit of stalk, to hold the head together, but don’t cut it too low. Stalks will go on to produce a second bonus crop of smaller heads a week or two later.

Who could resist a delicious, nutritious bowl of broccoli soup?

Don’t discard the stalks when in the kitchen – they’re some of the best bits and have a slight sweetness about them. I use them in soups – pop them in the freezer and save them up for that purpose. Broccoli’s so good for you – it’s got vitamin C for the immune system, antioxidants, and all sorts of bioactive compounds that help protect against all sorts of ills – so you really don’t want to waste any of it!

Sprouting broccoli won’t be ready till later in winter or spring. Like summer broccoli, harvest the main spear then leave the plants as they are for a second crop of smaller spears to follow. Two harvests for the price of one!

Sprouting broccoli, like many winter crops, actually improves in flavour after a few frosts because the plant converts starches into sugars to help protect it against the cold. To extend the harvest period even further, you can also select varieties of both summer and sprouting broccoli that have different recommended growing dates or times to harvest to give a really long window of harvests. Wonderful!

Bugs, Beneficial Insects and Plant Diseases

< All Guides

Garden Planning Apps

If you need help designing your vegetable garden, try our Vegetable Garden Planner.
Garden Planning Apps and Software

Vegetable Garden Pest Warnings

Want to Receive Alerts When Pests are Heading Your Way?

If you've seen any pests or beneficial insects in your garden in the past few days please report them to The Big Bug Hunt and help create a warning system to alert you when bugs are heading your way.

Show Comments


"im enjoying all your videos i just started a vege and fruit garden at Raglan its going good must be good soil. im grateful i found your helpful site i saw a video off mr fothergills website. i grew some broccolli to and i was just woundering what the recipe is for the broccolli stalk soup or is it just vegetable soup you make . ive been doing heap of recipes the fried green tomatoes was nice."
Ahley on Monday 16 May 2022
"So pleased you're enjoying the videos. Really, for the broccoli soup, all I do is add the stalks into any vegetable soup I'm making, to make a general veg soup. It goes particularly well with other green veggies: chard, peas, leeks etc."
Ben Vanheems on Thursday 19 May 2022
"Hi we live in far north NSW and every time I grow broccoli the heads don’t get to any size at all and just go straight to flower. What am I doing wrong?"
Simon on Saturday 24 December 2022
"Hi Simon. I wonder if it's the heat in your location? Broccoli prefers things on the cooler side, so perhaps setting up some sort of shade netting, or growing your broccoli in more dappled shade might help. Also, be sure to give it plenty of water, as a non-stressed plant will be in less of a hurry to flower."
Ben Vanheems on Wednesday 4 January 2023
"We have 2 lots of broad beans, one just growing and one in flower and already pollinated by the bees. I've tried growing broccoli, which I love, without success, but I now know I have been growing them when it's been too hot. I will now sow both calabrese to transfer to one bed when the broad beans are over and Purple Sprouting Broccoli to plant out in the other bed. I have a tendency to just grow one crop of something and not follow it on with another so thank you very much for your great tips and lovely enthusiasm which makes us want to get up and go! I use the stems of broccoli in soups, like you do, but I also cut off the outer green harder part of the stem and then slice up the inner white part and steam it with the broccoli heads. You can also eat the inner part raw and this tastes like raw cabbage."
Julia Bentley on Monday 5 June 2023
"Hi Julia. I love using the broccoli stems like that too. I haven't eaten them raw though, so will have to try this - thanks for the idea!"
Ben Vanheems on Tuesday 6 June 2023

Add a Comment

Add your own thoughts on the subject of this article:
(If you have difficulty using this form, please use our Contact Form to send us your comment, along with the title of this article.)

(We won't display this on the website or use it for marketing)


(Please enter the code above to help prevent spam on this article)

By clicking 'Add Comment' you agree to our Terms and Conditions